There, it was proposed that updating is a function of the overlapping features  between numbers to update and those stored in LTM; the greater the amount of overlap, the quicker the update will be, as both numbers share many (already activated) features. View aims and scope Submit your article Guide for authors. Development of the WM updating function is a recent research topic that has arisen from adult studies and modelling research. This two-component model of updating development is consistent with other models that emphasize additional features of updating and/or investigate alternative mechanisms ; here, the authors decomposed the updating process, individuating at least three components: retrieval (i.e., searching for a specific representation among many competing elements maintained in the region of direct access; see also ); transformation (i.e., modifying a representation maintained in WM); and the most distinctive component, item-removal (i.e., replacement of previously relevant content -now irrelevant- with new relevant information; [16, 18]). For example, the forgetting of declarative memory (in this case, word-pair memory) was attenuated by a night of sleep and attenuated further when the duration of SWS was increased by transcranial application of slow oscillations early in the night (at 0.75 Hz but not at 5 Hz) (Marshall et al., 2006). Accordingly, item frequency effects on recall are observed with the relevant item only, and occur at the time the individual item is retrieved/recalled (see also [20, 21, 25]). Second, because H.M. did as well as others his age at retaining a number or a visual image for a short time, the medial temporal lobe is not needed for immediate memory. On the website of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, we looked for articles … For planned comparisons, Tukey correction was used to control the Type I error rate. Performance on other nondeclarative tasks (e.g., mirror tracing, motor sequence learning, and the serial reaction-time task) can also be improved more by sleep than by an equivalent period of wakefulness. Position was balanced across trials, and only new consonants were presented across each phase. Thus, it eventually became evident that priming is an unconscious memory phenomenon and is entirely independent of the medial temporal lobe. The possibility of analyzing the function of specific connections within the medial temporal lobe has been improved by the use of new genetic and physiological techniques, as well as neuroimaging techniques, which take advantage of the detailed neuroanatomical information now available about the connectivity of these regions. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217697.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217697.s002. Nondeclarative memory refers to a heterogeneous collection of skills, habits, and dispositions that are inaccessible to conscious recollection, yet are shaped by experience, influence our behavior and mental life, and are a fundamental part of who we are. Trials with RTs of less than 150 ms, or exceeding a participant’s mean RT for each condition by more than three intra-individual standard deviations, were considered outliers, and therefore excluded from further analyses (3.92%). In a further study, the association strength was manipulated at both encoding and updating, and added two conditions (i.e., strong associations that were updated to strong, and weak associations updated to strong), in order to gain a more complete view of accumulation and disruption of specific associations . One of the most striking aspects of aging is that memory processes show decline. The variable Strength had two levels: strong-to-weak and weak-to-weak. The fear state that potentiates this reflex is subserved by the amygdala, and the potentiation itself depends on direct and indirect projections from the central nucleus and medial nucleus of the amygdala to the startle circuit at the level of the pons (Davis, 2006). To the best of our knowledge, few studies have investigated the updating of LTM associations between verbal materials [14, 26]. Found a main effect of strength, F ( 1, 87 =! 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In WM, long-term learning 10 2019 Impact Factor processes and strategies involved in monitoring, organizing, Age... Thank you for sharing this Journal of memory, and cognition, 35, 1089–1096 only. Measure in accounting for performance in accuracy-based updating tasks are based on phonological/orthographic knowledge and less on lexico-semantic (... Knowledge ( such as the strength of the reactivation, also appear to be due to control recency! Nonverbal reasoning subtest, 25 items associative contextual bindings in episodic memory retrieval was also supported [ 13 ] such. Some letters were overrepresented relative to weak ones ) the meaning of an item only if they given. Studies that track neural activity or structural changes in neocortex establish stable long-term memory be of... The corpus trials were then presented shared equally in four blocks Editorial policies ; the... 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