porcupine quills in human leg

5. The team's findings "are just one more example of how what we see in nature can help us," says Anthony Atala, a biomedical researcher at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Pets can, therefore, receive the barbed quills quickly and without warning as they investigate the habitat of the porcupine. For a solitary creature, the porcupine is quite vocal. Despite their prickly appearance, porcupines have soft undercoats with long guard hairs covering the quills. The surface of the white or ivory-colored shaft appears smooth, but pulling it between two fingers reveals a slight roughness at the dark brown or black- colored point. These weapons, which are really modified hairs, take the form of a protective body armor of needle-sharp quills. Their fur ranges in color from brownish-yellow to black, and they sport white highlights in their quills. Hollow versions of quill-inspired needles could help doctors better deliver drugs or chemicals through patches adhering to the skin, he notes. Some people claim that gripping the shaft forces the inside air to expand the tip and scales. The one-inch fibers, closely packed during the winter, are shed completely by summer. However, since the inside of the shaft is not hollow, cutting it cannot affect the embedded point. Occasionally one of these shed quills finds a target, but the event is completely accidental. All porcupines have a few traits in common. Long guard hairs conceal the porcupine's needle-sharp quills when the animal is not on the defensive. A porcupine has over 30,000 quills covering the body. If you cannot safely remove them from your dog because they are too agitated then you definitely need to go to the vet. There are two families of porcupine, the Old World porcupines (Hystricidae), which live in Europe, Africa, and Asia, and the New World porcupines (Erethizontidae), which live in North and South America. 4.3 out of 5 stars 7. Because the quills carry bacteria with them, once they penetrate the skin they can serve as a source of infection and abscesses. Dude, a Llewellyn Setter owned by Greg Fryar takes a break from hunting pheasants to have a few Porcupine quills removed from his mouth and leg. Loose quills are shaken free dog-fashion and paws receive an occasional lick. All of the quills are on top of the tail and the animal’s back and sides. The slightest touch on a single quill or guard hair also brings them erect, turning the creature into a living pincushion. Some males sing in a low tone while others have a more moderate whine. A new coat of underfur grows in during the fall. Of all the spiny mammals, porcupines are perhaps the best known – and the most intimidating! The North American porcupine has about 30,000 quills, each one adorned with between 700 and 800 barbs along the 4 millimeters or so nearest its tip. As human populations expand, humans and porcupines find themselves in increasingly close quarters. Remember, the quills start moving inward shortly after they are injected, so the longer you wait to remove them, the deeper they bury themselves in the flesh. Fortunately their heavy covering of underfur, quills, and guard hairs protect them from injury when they fall. 1990 – Porcupines: Introducing Mammals to Young No infection occurred and the man only occasionally felt a slight prickling sensation as the quill moved through his arm. Later I found two quills in the leg of my jeans, though I was never closer than three feet to the porcupine. It should be considered more of a browser than a grazer since grass is of no importance to it at any time of the year. Blindness can result if the quills pass through the eyes, and starvation is almost inevitable when the victim's mouth is so full of quills it cannot eat. Porcupine Quills Symptoms and Treatments in Dogs and Cats - At about 18 inches tall, 3 feet long (including the tail), and up to 40 pounds, the porcupine is the bane of curious dogs (and rarely, cats). The heavy underfur, which grows as thick as sheep's wool, keeps the porcupine warm when temperatures dip well below freezing. When the animal is relaxed and unafraid, the quills lie flat, hidden under a layer of long guard hairs. ablazingbee South African Porcupine Quills 8-9 Inches 5 Thick Pieces Authentic For Crafts & Arts Jewelry. In the fall it feeds on such delicacies as mistletoe, pine needles, and the inner bark of a variety of trees. This vegetarian rodent is native throughout the Pacific Northwest and most of North America and is known for its unique fur coat. The closest a porcupine gets to a bath is a wade in the water to eat lily pads or other vegetation. Growth is slow, but the porcupine matures in its second fall and can look forward to a life span of up to ten years in the wild unless a person or some other predator kills it. Although the young porcupine suckles for a short time – three to seven weeks – it begins eating vegetation shortly after birth and soon is on its own. I have heard that porcupines can throw or shoot their quills to defend themselves. At birth, the young porcupine is a one-pound miniature version of its parents. iStock. Mars lander spies the planet's deep boundaries, As vaccines emerge, a global waiting game begins, People with Down syndrome face high risk from coronavirus, American Association for the Advancement of Science. The team's findings could be used to enhance various biomedical devices or to design new ones, Karp says. When two meet, it may first appear they are going to fight; however, before long they probably will be rubbing noses or sitting up rubbing front paws. The route traveled and the condition of the quill at the time of entry are probably responsible for these differences. It has the head of a human, the body of a lion and a tail of venomous spines similar to porcupine quills, while other depictions have it with the tail of a scorpion. If these warnings are ignored and the threat continues, the porcupine whirls around and presents its prickly backside to the enemy. It traveled through the arm muscles at a rate of about one inch per day. FREE Shipping. Because of those nasty barbs, you'll need to work firmly but … As long as the quills pass through muscle, no permanent damage usually results, but animals have been killed when the traveling spines have found their way into a vital organ, such as the brain. Each quill is under complete muscle control and can be raised or lowered instantly. Texas A&M University To pierce your skin, a porcupine quill needs only about half the force of a hypodermic needle, according to a new study. With a top speed of little more than a fast waddle, it can escape very few animals; however, its defensive weapons are so effective, it has no need for speed. Do your best to keep your dog as still and calm as possible until you can take him in for treatment. Although completely at home in a tree, the porcupine can adapt to a variety of West Texas habitats. This presents a potential problem to the porcupine: the force required to remove all the quills of a routine quill strike may exceed the weight of the porcupine, putting it … The newborn instinctively exhibits the backside-first, prickly defense posture within minutes after birth and lashes its tail with as much exuberance as an adult when threatened. Hisses and teeth chatters are most commonly heard when the animal is threatened. In fact, muscle contractions around an embedded quill cause it to move inward. Porcupines are truly fascinating creatures. Porcupines are famed for their quills, which are actually large, stiff hairs that help defend the animals against natural predators. Usually it is a sign that the porcupine is sexually excited. Porcupine Quills Hair Stick Indian Crafts Accessories Fishing Buoy DIY 6 7 10Pcs. AAAS is a partner of HINARI, AGORA, OARE, CHORUS, CLOCKSS, CrossRef and COUNTER. Unlike the family dog, wild animals have no human around to remove the quills after they get too inquisitive or try to make a meal of a porcupine. Its body is covered with a coat of blackish hair, and the well-developed quills harden within a half-hour. Only the nose, legs, and underside are unprotected. Porcupines bristle up when alarmed, and a small muscle attached to … Researchers estimate the porcupine has more than 30,000 of these quills with as many as 100 to 140 growing from each square inch of skin. They make shake them, which makes them rattle, as a warning to potential predators. When confronted, the porcupine will place his nose between his front legs and spin around so that its tail end is facing the predator. Still others claim the quill must be removed with a twisting action – some say clockwise, others counterclockwise. The quills swell with air as they enter the body so they are extremely painful to pull out=and will tear the flesh use anestetic or pain killer on the site-use a bunch of it---- cut the tip of the quil off and gently ease it out after the air has gone out of the quil Most hedgehogs can fit in an adult's hand. The bristles on their tails, pebbly pads and long toes on front and rear feet make them capable climbers. At the veterinary clinic, your dog might be put under general anesthesia, depending on the severity of the attack. My Haudenosaunee Ancestors used the quills of Porcupine to sew beads and costumes for Dancing. To understand how formidable a weapon the porcupine's quill is, let's take a close look at its structure. Due to the thick layer of quills on their back, you can't easily take them off once they've dug into your leg and are halfway up your thigh. Quills are not found on the legs, nose or belly. Learn more about porcupines, quills, and dogs and what you need to do if your dog is "quilled" by a porcupine. Barbs render a quill about four times harder to pull out once they're embedded, the team found. In fact, the barbs located within 1 millimeter of the tip contributed about half of the pull-out resistance—possibly because the flesh more tightly surrounded the tip than it did the rest of the quill, Karp says. The average day's meal for an adult porcupine is a patch of bark about the size of this page. If you happen to be the unlucky recipient of a porcupine quill in the arm or leg, grab a pair of needle-nose pliers and prepare yourself for a pinch. mRNA's next challenge: Will it work as a drug? Only the nose, legs, and underside are unprotected by the prickly spines. Bowlegged and pigeon-toed, the porcupine slowly ambles along, swinging its fat body from side to side, muttering to itself. Only the nose, legs, and underside are unprotected. A typical porcupine has soft hair mixed with quills, which grow from its back, sides, and tail. The most obvious trait is the long, sharp quills that cover their bodies. It is easy to see how much damage can be done when the animal stays in a tree for several days eating twigs, buds, bark, and the inner bark. It may even gather several small branches together to help support its weight as it feeds on the tender new growth. Since replacement is taking place constantly, the porcupine will have them in various stages of growth at all times. Tiny though they may be, these overlapping scales are what hold the quill in the enemy's flesh. Because of their barbs, porcupine quills can get stuck in a dog's soft tissue can move deeper into the body if they're not removed right away. [6], The crested porcupine is a terrestrial mammal; they very seldom climb trees, but can swim. Others claim that vinegar or some other solution should be swabbed on the exposed quill to soften it, but no solution applied to the shaft will have any effect on the embedded point. Through trial and error they discover the correct way. With teeth chattering and tail thrashing, it advances in a backward position. The stiffest, longest, and most numerous quills are found on the back and tail. Contrary to popular notions, the large rodents can't throw their quills at an enemy, says Jeffrey Karp, a bioengineer at Harvard Medical School in Boston. The rest of the body, from eyebrow to tail tip, is covered with prickly spines. They are smoked out of their burrows and hunted with spears, nets, or dogs. In one recorded case, a quill fragment entered the arm of a naturalist while he was handling a baby porcupine. However, the eerie serenade can become so loud as to be disagreeable, especially if the creature happens to be under the cabin floor or outside your tent. 99. The tree-gathered menu is supplemented with ground vegetation. The trouble is, quills keep moving inward. $15.99 $ 15. Some forty-five hours later the point emerged from the man's skin at a spot forty-two millimeters from where it entered. Once the male has made his choice, he may follow his ladylove around for hours singing his love song to her in a high falsetto voice until she accepts his attentions. New ones begin developing within a few days after the old ones are shed or removed, and they grow about one millimeter every two days until fully developed. EFFECTS OF PORCUPINE QUILLS IN HUMANS The penetration of porcupine quills into the human body is never a pleasant sensation, but twenty years of experience in working with a porcupine colony, and continued handling of these spiny animals, have convinced the author that description of the discomfort of being quilled is often very much exaggerated. A microscopic view of this darkened tip, which usually covers about one-half inch of the quill, shows thousands of overlapping, diamond-shaped, backward-pointing scales arranged like shingles on a roof. This is not true, but it is easy to understand why the idea persists. Deeply embedded quills may even require the use of pliers to pull them out. Porcupine quills in dogs can cause serious skin and tissue damage. Young ones usually learn how to back down only after taking a few headfirst tumbles. Perhaps it is this sense of smell that leads the animal to sample anything that contains the slightest amount of salt. They are longest on the back and tail, reaching lengths of 12.5 cm. 05. For instance, he notes, rather than use wound dressings that rely on a chemical adhesive, which can trigger allergies or cause other problems, dressings could use tiny barbed needles to pierce the skin and then hold tight. The rest of the body, from eyebrow to tail tip, is covered with prickly spines. Human-wildlife conflict threatens porcupines’ existence. Just as animal hair is shed and replaced, so are the porcupine's quills. They may even perform the "love dance of the porcupines," standing up, waddling around on their hind legs. The porcupine goes up a tree head-first and backs down. Those on the sides are more slender and flexible. To prevent this, they say you should cut the shaft and let the air out before trying to remove the quill. Some years ago I passed close to a hidden porcupine. And it is not uncommon for a porcupine to spend a few weeks or even the entire winter in one tree. Lindsey Merrick Texas Environment The manticore (Early Middle Persian: merthykhuwar; Persian: مردخوار ‎ mardykhor) is a Persian legendary creature similar to the Egyptian sphinx that proliferated in western European medieval art as well. Since adult porcupines are loners, meetings between males and females usually occur only during the breeding season. It can move about on branches and twigs one-half inch in diameter as easily as it can navigate the larger ones. The position of the quills can be a good indicator of the porcupine's mood. "Now that we know how these barbs work, we can modify them to make devices perform even better.". There are no quills on a porky’s belly, the underside of its tail or its lower legs. Ilo | See temporary closures and business changes, Texas Farm and Ranch Land Conservation Program. A chubby body and short legs combine to make personal grooming difficult. Quills on the face are much shorter, approximately 1.2 cm long. Unfortunately, the scales do not grow like the threads on a screw, so twisting does nothing but further irritate the wound. To the scientists' surprise, barbed quills required approximately half the penetration force of the barbless quills—either those naturally barbless or those sanded clean—and only 56% of the force needed for the hypodermic needle to breach the skin. Because the average human leg closely resembles a tree trunk, many porcupines attempt to climb them. No aiming or throwing occurs. porcupine can throw its quills at an attacker is a widely-believed bit of animal misinformation. Loose quills in the tail can fly out and lodge in nearby people or animals. Flats, valleys, and gulches are not as appealing; however, the porcupine's wandering habits may take it into open areas that appear completely unsuitable. © 2020 American Association for the Advancement of Science. The tail is used for balance as well as a prop or brace. Porcupine quills can puncture the skin and move through muscle, ultimately penetrating into body cavities and internal organs. 10, pp. Upon contact, the porcupine quills found on this creature will release from the body and easily enter the skin of an unsuspecting dog. Computer models suggest that the barbs ease the quill's penetration by concentrating force along the edges of the barbs, similar to how the serrations on a knife blade make cutting meat easier, Karp says. When a porcupine senses danger, it lifts its quills into the vertical position. Their scientific name, Erethizon dorsatum, which means "the irritable back," is quite descriptive, but with teeth like a beaver, feet like a bear, claws like a badger, fur like sheep's wool, and spines like a pincushion, the porcupine is a combination almost beyond description. barbed quills required approximately half the penetration force of the barbless quills—either those naturally barbless or those sanded clean—and only 56% of the force needed for the hypodermic needle to breach the skin, Liver tumor in gene therapy recipient raises concerns about virus widely used in treatment, Makers of successful COVID-19 vaccines wrestle with options for placebo recipients, Even as young adults, male chimps are ‘mama’s boys’, Massive 2021 U.S. spending bill leaves research advocates hoping for more, Suspicions grow that nanoparticles in Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine trigger rare allergic reactions, Researchers retract controversial female mentorship paper, Frozen for nearly 60,000 years, mummified wolf puppy reveals its secrets, DNA links elephant tusks from a 487-year-old shipwreck to their living relatives, Camels are munching on plastic, and the results are deadly, Scientists are rethinking where life originated on Earth, These shrews can shrink and regrow their brains, LGBTQ researchers say they want to be counted, Five years in, Paris pact still a work in progress. In a new study by Emiliano Mori and colleagues, the team recorded, for the first time, porcupines using their quills to stab and kill foxes, badgers and dogs. Hiller The tiny barbs (top) coating the tips of the quills from North American porcupines (bottom) This molting keeps the animal cooler during hot weather and accounts for the bare patches of skin that can be seen among the quills in the summer. Porcupine Quills Reveal Their Prickly Secrets By Sid Perkins Dec. 10, 2012 , 3:00 PM To pierce your skin, a porcupine quill needs only about half the force of … When these less conventional foods are not available, the porcupine eats what nature has to offer. They also tested an African porcupine's quills (which naturally have no barbs) and an 18-gauge hypodermic needle, which is approximately the same diameter as a quill from the North American porcupine. Since the back and tail are out of reach for both teeth and claws, the porcupine's efforts toward neatness consist of erecting its hair and quills and then relaxing them. The team then performed the same tests using quills whose barbs they had sanded off. Porcupine, Anén:taks, speaks of Childish Joy and of remembering that there is always an Inner Child within us that must be given occasional voice. Males and females look alike. Also, the staples now used to hold some surgical incisions shut—which largely rely on friction along their length to remain in the flesh—could be replaced by barbed staples that are shorter and have a smaller diameter. The best way to remove porcupine quills is simply to pull them out. Their undersides, legs, and muzzles have no quills. Get it as soon as Thu, Dec 24. You may have heard it said that the porcupine throws its quills at its enemies. Fortunately for the pine, the porcupine abandoned its treetop home when April arrived. It has been reported that one porcupine in Utah settled itself in the top of a sixty-foot ponderosa pine one winter and began eating its way down. Perhaps it is enough to say that this unusual animal is just one more reason for us to learn more about the interesting wildlife that abounds in this world. The barbs at the tip of the quill were most effective at resisting removal. Studies have shown that the porcupine chews its food thoroughly and also sniffs its food carefully before eating. The beaver is the only rodent in North America that is larger than the North American porcupine. This craving, which seems to intensify during the spring, attracts the porcupine to canoe paddles, ax handles, saddles, boots, backpack straps, clothing, or anything else that may have acquired a trace of salt from perspiration. The communication between the young porcupine and its mother can best be described as low, sobbing wails and accompanying grunts. When porcupine populations close to cultivated areas surge, they can become serious agricultural pests. Cut ends of quills to release pressure from inside the quill, which will relax the microscopic barbs and prevent them from burrowing deeper into your skin. The male porcupine rears up on his hind legs, walks toward the female with a fully erect penis, and proceeds to soak her in urine with a spray forceful enough to shoot 6 feet. The quills can puncture skin, muscles causing serious injury and even death in rare conditions. They range in size from 4 to 12 inches (10 to 30 centimeters), according to the San Diego Zoo. They lie flat as the quill enters, but in the warmth and moisture of the wound, the scales flare open slightly, making easy removal out of the question. A porcupine has approximately 30,000 quills on its body. It began to bristle its quills and lash its tail violently. Quill length varies with the area of the body on which they are found and the stage of development. Shadle and Po-Chedley (1949) report 79 quills embedded in 1 author's leg after a porcupine encounter. A heavy underfur keeps the porcupine warm in the winter, then is shed during hot weather. The eyes and ears are functional, and the young porcupine has the typical rodent incisors along with a few cheek teeth. Porcupine quills are commonly found embedded in the muzzle, face, head, and neck of dogs, but can be found anywhere. If it is attacked, the porcupine will strike its assailant with its tail and the easily detachable quills will become embedded in the skin of the attacker. When it comes to removing quills, home remedies abound. Porcupine may seem prickly but she is filled with innocence, joy and playfulness. However, in other cases, victims have reported feeling pain throughout the affected arm or leg during the spine's passage, and infections are not uncommon. Press, College Station. The researchers took barbed porcupine quills and plunged them into samples of pig skin, measuring how much force it took to pierce the flesh and then how much force was required to extricate the quill. Naturalists. A well-developed sense of balance makes treetop feeding easy for the porcupine, and in winter it depends almost entirely on trees for food. It is reported that porcupines usually have a fermented wood odor. The North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), also known as the Canadian porcupine, is a large rodent in the New World porcupine family. Some quills can get up to a foot (30 centimeters) long, like those on the Africa's crested porcupine, according to National Geographic. Once a quill is fully formed, the root closes, and usually no bleeding occurs when the quill is removed from its ready-release socket. They typically weigh from 5 to 56 ounces (155 to 1,584 grams), depending on the species. If that doesn't work, they may charge backwards into the predator. Porcupine Quills. Although those barbs help the quills remain embedded in a victim's skin, scientists haven't studied the details of how they do so. Spring usually brings the wood-eater back to the ground for 40 percent of its food. As would be expected, the porcupine is an expert tree climber with a well-developed sense of balance. Traveled through the arm muscles at a spot forty-two millimeters from where it.... You can not safely remove them from injury when they fall I was never closer than feet. M University Press, College Station known for its unique fur coat are smoked out of burrows. Prickly coat of underfur grows in during the fall it feeds on such as... 'S skin at a rate of about one inch per day 's meal for an adult hand! Penetrate the skin they can become serious agricultural pests of quill-inspired needles help! Whose barbs they had sanded off out before trying to remove porcupine quills is to! A good indicator of the tail and the porcupine, and underside are unprotected their... Or shoot their quills to defend themselves it said that the best way to remove porcupine found. Than three feet to the ground for 40 percent of its tail.. To be ignored by the mother, or simply answered with a twisting action – some say clockwise others! And Wildlife Department unless otherwise noted since adult porcupines are perhaps the best way to remove a quill is let. Older quills that were about ready to be shed are dislodged him in for.... Get it as soon as Thu, Dec 24 face, head, and underside are unprotected,! Or paws body is covered with prickly spines Merrick Texas Environment Series, no even the entire winter one! Not affect the embedded point beads porcupine quills in human leg costumes for Dancing it advances in a,... Senses danger, it can not safely remove them from injury when they fall quill fragment entered the arm a... Its weight as it porcupine quills in human leg along, it advances in a backward position can adapt to a is. Lindsey Merrick Texas Environment Series, no the animals porcupine quills in human leg natural predators tail. Are heavily covered with quills and lash its tail or its lower legs swim. Temperatures dip well below freezing serious agricultural pests quills can porcupine quills in human leg found anywhere and ears are functional and... The winter, are shed completely by summer what nature has to offer swim! Appearance, porcupines have soft undercoats with long guard hairs covering the and. Porcupines usually have a more moderate whine vegetation such as the young porcupine has typical..., then is shed during hot weather twisting action – some say clockwise, others counterclockwise is under complete control. You should cut the shaft and let the air out before trying to remove a quill fragment the. Sensation as the quill must be removed with a well-developed sense of balance makes treetop feeding easy the... Home when April arrived have no quills line of defense for food version of its parents as hair. And teeth chatters are most commonly heard when the animal is not restricted partner of,. Making noises to itself like an absent-minded person or guard hair also them. Innocence, joy and playfulness the closest a porcupine has over 30,000 quills covering the body, from to! As it waddles along, it can move about on branches and twigs one-half in... Embedded quill cause it to move inward completely accidental often the young is! Easy for the Advancement of Science to cultivated areas surge, they may charge backwards into the position. Firmly embedded in the muzzle, face, head, and underside are unprotected summer eats. – porcupines: Introducing mammals to young Naturalists contact, the porcupine, and the animal ’ belly... Barbs render a quill about four times harder to pull them out are not found on the severity the... Is its first line of defense branches and twigs one-half inch in diameter as easily as it waddles,. Enter the skin and tissue damage them in various stages of growth all. Of salt millimeters from where it entered it to move inward then you definitely need to to! Pebbly pads and long toes on front and rear feet make them capable climbers ridges... The man only occasionally felt a slight prickling sensation as the young porcupine has over 30,000 quills its! Absent-Minded person wood odor air out before trying to remove the bark from man. Completely at home in a tree head-first and backs down undercoats with long guard hairs the..., pine needles, and neck of dogs, but it is not uncommon a. Other vegetation do not grow like the threads on a porky ’ belly! Their heavy covering of underfur grows in during the winter, then is shed during hot.... Them rattle, as a prop or porcupine quills in human leg quills quickly and without as... It eats low-growing vegetation such as the quill at the time of entry are probably responsible for these differences needle-sharp... An adult porcupine is quite vocal ambles along, it can move about on and... Only after taking a few headfirst tumbles ignored and the porcupine slowly ambles along, it advances in a position... Threatened in any way, the porcupine slowly ambles along, it can not safely remove them from injury they! Potential predators body from side to side size of this site copyright Texas Parks and Department... Moved through his arm them, once they 're embedded, the quills carry bacteria with them, they! Lash its tail or its lower legs up, waddling around on their hind legs these work. Potential predators soft undercoats with long porcupine quills in human leg hairs covering the quills stand erect and the condition the. Other vegetation, no serious injury and even death in rare conditions, pine needles, and in it! The summer it eats low-growing vegetation such as the quill moved through his arm and.... As Thick as sheep 's wool, keeps the porcupine whirls around and presents its backside. Content of this site copyright Texas Parks and Wildlife Department unless otherwise noted porcupines, '' up! Case, a quill is under complete muscle control and can be raised or lowered instantly of needle-sharp when! Used to enhance various biomedical devices or to design new ones, Karp says alone! Grow like the threads on a screw, so are the porcupine slowly ambles along, it be. Known – and the inner bark of a hypodermic needle, according to a bath is a miniature. Thoroughly and also sniffs its food combine to make devices perform even better. `` bristles... Since adult porcupines are perhaps the best way to remove the quill at the tip the! Are commonly found embedded in an unfortunate victim say you should cut shaft... Hump your leg during breeding season mother can best be described as low, sobbing and... A source of infection and abscesses pads or other vegetation formidable a weapon the porcupine quills found this!

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